Late 1890’s – Early 1920’s, England.  (Note:  This description applies to antique, not present-day bells.)  "JT" and the pattern numbers are normally stamped on the crown.  Castings are about as thin as a modern English bells.  Lathe marks are slightly visible (about the same as modern English bell) but the castings are polished smooth.  Clapper shafts are flat and hand hammered. The top of clapper shaft flares out and looks like a little pedestal where it joins the clapper ball.  Three ornamental lines decorate the clapper.  The clapper flight is about the same length as a modern English bell.  The clapper springs and cushions are attached by little rivets.  Staple pins and spring cushions are rawhide or leather.  The handles and handguards are leather with the bell designation stamped on handle.  Ornamentation on handguard may be highly decorative, alternating hearts, flowers and crosses, etc.  (See pictures 1, 2 & 3.) Modern tuning.

Early/mid - late 1800's.  The casting has rounded shoulders, more visible lathe marks (see pictures 4, 5, "before" and 6, "after" restoration), and the clapper is somewhat different. Tuning is sharp.